Meso Scale Discovery has been a new drug development process. There are several test variations conceivable with MSD, just as ELISA, owing to the MULTI ARRAY technology of the MSD platform, which offers both high sensitivity and multiplex capabilities.
The plate-based test method known as MSD ELISA assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is used to identify and measure soluble molecules such as peptides, proteins, antibodies, and hormones in drug development phases. The same method is often referred to by other names, such as enzyme immunogenicity assay (EIA). The target macromolecule (antigen) is immobilized on a solid surface (microplate) and then combined with an antibody linked to a reporting enzyme in an MSD ELISA. Detection is carried out by incubating the reporter enzyme with the proper substrate to create a quantifiable end product. The particular antibody-antigen interaction is the most crucial component of an MSD ELISA.
Several test modifications are conceivable with MSD mesoscale, just as with ELISA. A prominent ELISA test is the sandwich ELISA, in which the wells on the ELISA plate are coated with a capture antibody, an antigen is put in, and then a secondary antibody is conjugated with an enzyme (such as horseradish peroxidase). The attached enzyme can produce a colorimetric reaction if a chemical substrate is present. The degree of the color shift is proportional to the quantity of antigen present. An MSD assay might employ a setting like this, but significant distinctions increase the sensitivity and dynamic range.
- The direct, indirect, and bridging tests are frequently used ELISA modalities. The Meso Scale Discovery platform also supports all of these methods. , In direct tests, once the antigen is coupled to the electrode, a primary antibody attached to the Ru metal ion is used to detect the presence of the antigen. In indirect tests, the antigen is likewise linked to the electrode, but a secondary antibody that binds to the primary antibody is used. When the target molecule is an additional antibody, such as when it’s important to detect whether a patient is developing antibodies against a therapeutic antibody or an antibody-drug conjugate, bridging assays are frequently carried out.
- The benefits of multiplexing are numerous. It was the most effective approach to studying several molecules from a single sample earlier in the beginning. When multiplexing is needed, a single MSD plate can substitute for up to ten conventional ELISA plates—further, for MSD employing multiplexing to analyze a panel of ten analytes, fifty times fewer samples will be needed than for an ELISA approach. Many businesses have switched to MSD multiplexing for clinical sample analysis due to the efficiency gains and reduced sample sizes.
ELISA VS. MSD
|Sample volume requires||10–25 μL (up to 10 analytes)||50–100 μL (per analyte)|
|Multiplex panels||ten analytes simultaneously||No|
|Flexible panel configuration||Yes (U-PLEX)||No|
|Dynamic range||3–4+ logs||1–2 logs|
|Matrix effects||Greatly reduced||Yes|
|Wash steps||Typically 1–3||Many|
|Read times||In 1- 3 min ( upto 960 results)||Slow|
|Instrument maintenance||No user maintenance required||Daily cleaning and calibration|
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